Raspberry, also known as raspberry, is a perennial deciduous shrub-type fruit tree of Rubus L. It is also known as a tray, marin, or raspberry. Heltz was born in Durham in 1969 by Milton Cuthbert of the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station. In 2000, he was introduced into Shanxi from the Chinese Academy of Forestry. Its greatest feature is that the basal shoots and root seedlings form flower buds and flowering at the upper end of the tree in the year they were formed, and can be harvested until the frost comes. The regional test showed early results, high yield and stable yield, excellent fruit quality, strong adaptability and stress resistance, and it can be planted in areas similar to the climate characteristics of central Shanxi. This species was certified by the Shanxi Province Forest Variety Committee in December 2010.
1. The main traits were clustered shrubs, which were 1. 6~ 2. 0 m high, and their branches were strong and their growth potential was strong. The root cause is extremely strong. Stems are more moderately punctured, and 2-year-old shoots are dark brown, on which the resulting branches are drawn. More than three compound leaves, the back of the leaf are gray-white, the leaflets are ovoid or long ovoid, and the cymes are planted in the leaves of the resulting branches. The resulting 2-year-old branches died in the fall of the year. Aggregate fruit red when ripe, bright red, large fruit, flat conical, fruit weight of summer fruit 3. 19 g, maximum fruit weight of 4. 6 g; autumn fruit average weight 3. 84 g, the largest fruit Weight 4. 9 g. Fresh fruit soluble solids 13. 54%, soluble sugar 7. 50%, organic acid 2. 28%. Torus length 1. 2 cm, fruit stem 3. 0 cm, less acupuncture. The sepals are large, and there are many acupunctures. The berry is bright red, neat, with 2.84 g per 100 seeds, easily separated from polymerized fruit and torus, long cone-shaped receptacle, hard fruit, red meat, fine texture, soft, fresh, sweet and sour taste. In the Jinzhong area, it sprouted in early April, and the summer fruit matured in late June, lasting about 25 days. From late August to late September, the fruit picking period is 30 to 35 days, and the natural fruit set rate is close to 100%. Deciduous period in late November, about 210 days of growth period. Planting results from the second year of planting can yield up to 11 151 kg per 1 hm2 of fruit.
2. Cultivation Management Techniques
2. 1 . Colonization
It can be planted in spring and autumn, and planted in spring with stable temperatures. Pay attention to timely watering. Autumn plants are planted on top of frozen plants and poured into frozen water after planting. The line spacing of m (2.0-2.5 m) was used between (0.5-5.8%), and 330-660 lines (667 m2) were planted. Before planting, the roots of seedlings should be soaked in water for one day and one night, and when they are planted, they can be filled with mud, which can greatly increase the survival rate.
2. 2 . Stand and tie
Each row consists of a row of cement pillars spaced 5 to 8 m apart. Two 10 iron wires are pulled on the pillars. The first track is 50 cm from the ground, and the second track is 40 to 50 cm away from the first track. When the result is the result of the branches, One by one lead to the wire.
2. 3 . Trimming
Raspberry grows vigorously, and there are a large number of basal branches each year. Generally, 8 to 10 can be kept in each culm. After the spring branches are tied, the sick and dry branches are removed, and the branches are cut off; the density is kept between 8 and 10 per plant. After summer pruning, all the basal branches germinated, and when the branches grew to 30-40 cm, the basal branches remained strong and weak, and the shears were close to the ground. After harvesting of fruits in the autumn, the resulting mother branches were trimmed off, and the basal branches were generally preserved in the year of 8 to 10, and were appropriately short-cut. The pruning during dormancy period is to cut off the basal branches before they are buried in the winter to prevent cold, and it is generally preferable to keep 1. 0 m to 1. 3 m long.
2. 4 . Fertilizer management
The basal fertilizer is mainly farmyard manure, which is combined with winter pour after falling leaves in autumn. Generally, 667 m2 of high quality soil manure is used for 4 to 5 t. Top dressing is based on the growth of the tree. It is generally divided into 3 stages. The first top dressing is from flowering to young fruit formation. Nitrogen is the main fertilizer, applying 50 kg of urea per 667 m2; the second time from late July to mid-August. Phosphorus and potash fertilizers are mainly applied at a rate of 30 kg per 667 m2. After the third combination of autumnal harvesting, the topdressing plant is applied at the same time. Each 667 m2 is applied with a compound fertilizer of 25 kg. Irrigation can be performed in conjunction with each application of fertilizers, and watering should be increased as the fruit begins to grow and mature. The cultivating and weeding are usually done 2~3 d after watering, and the depth is 10~15 cm.
2. 5 . Timely Harvest
The fruit of this variety is gradually mature, and harvesting can be carried out in different batches. When the fruit color changes from bright red to dark red, it can be harvested. Usually harvested once every 1 d, the harvested fruit should be placed in a cool place or kept in a cold store or sold.
2. 6 . Winter cold
Raspberry must be buried in the northern regions to prevent winter and cold, usually after pouring enough frozen water, before the soil is frozen. The raspberry was first bundled, and the pillow soil was piled up at the base of the raspberry and then buried. The soil should be taken farther away from the plants to avoid damaging the roots. In the spring of the following year, the soil shall be unloaded and unwound again. When removing the soil, pay attention to it later, to prevent the hazard of drawing and late frost, and pay attention to timely irrigation. 2. 7 . Pest control The main diseases of raspberry are root rot and powdery mildew. Root rot can be diluted with 70% thiophanate-methyl wettable powder and diluted to 1000-1500 times to control the roots; powdery mildew can be used in early spring. 35% triadimefon wettable powder 1 000 to 1 500 times spray was used to prevent and cure before germination, after flowering and in young fruit period. Insect pests mainly include raspberry moths and aphids. Raspberry moths can be controlled with 2.5% deltamethrin 2 000 to 3 000 times spray from the beginning of May to the first larva of early June; control of aphids can be found in larvae. From the hatching of the ovary to the open bud and the emergence of the aphid before flowering, use 2.5% fluocin 2Ox and 20% chlorimuron 2Ox to control.
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