In recent years, seed quality accidents in corn production have occurred from time to time, affecting agricultural production and damaging the interests of farmers. In 1995, when the maize grouting was mature, the authors conducted investigations into more than 50 corn production fields in some towns and villages in Zhongmu County and Jiyuan City. It was found that the majority of Tanaka had low levels of purity of corn hybrids. Production practices have proven that the increase in corn production depends mainly on the adoption of good varieties and the increase in production germplasm. Therefore, in the breeding, management, and promotion of corn hybrids, the correct identification method for maize seeds is strengthened. Quality inspection work is important for ensuring high corn yield.
1. Factors influencing corn seed quality
With the expansion of the area of â€‹â€‹maize seed and seed, the demand for maize has increased dramatically. Due to the relative lack of technical strength of some seed sectors, the field test of some crops and the work of removing crops and deficiencies are not timely, resulting in lower purity. Further, some The lack of effective administrative management and breeding and extension systems for seed production in the region is not perfect, and some units and individuals are more indiscriminate, indiscriminate, indiscriminate, and chaotic. In short, the technical reasons for the quality of corn seed can be summarized in the following four aspects:
Inbreeding breeding fields are not timely and incomplete. Heterozygous granules are produced; the hybrid planting field results in the heterogeneity of the cultivar, the varietal strain of the cultivar, due to the fact that the purity of the parent is not high, the variability is not strict, is not timely or thorough, or the emasculation of the female parent inbred line is not timely or thorough. Or the female parent is loose powder, producing heterozygous grains and maternal self-cross grains.
Isolation conditions do not meet the requirements, so that the pollen of different species is introduced to produce heterogeneous heterozygous grains.
Due to the negligence of seed harvesting, transportation, drying, threshing, and storage, seeds of different varieties were mixed.
The seeds of unlicensed individuals have many quality problems but are still illegally sold.
2. Identification method of corn seeds
Among the hybrid strains that affect the purity of corn hybrids, one is a mixed strain, and the other is a female parental self-introduced strain caused by incomplete detasseling. The former grain type, ear type and typical hybrids are clearly distinguishable and easy to distinguish; the latter is indistinguishable from morphological and hybrid species, but due to the different sources of pollen received, the color and transparency of the grain endosperm layer have different manifestations. The phenomenon that this paternal trait is directly expressed in contemporary hybridization is called pollen sensation. Based on this, the maternal self-bred grains of hybrid grains can be directly distinguished.
2.1 Direct Discrimination
2.1.l grain shape identification
Ordinary corn hybrids, the grain type can be divided into three kinds of horse teeth type, half horse teeth type and hard grain type. Divided from the appearance, there are long wooden wedges, wooden wedges, short wooden wedges, nearly round, round kidney shape. If inbred lines or hybrids are mixed with seeds of different varieties, they can be identified based on the type of grain. The shape and size of hybrids are generally like mother seeds. For example, the shape and size of the orthogonal plant (Huangzao Mo17) of Yandan No. 14 is similar to that of the female parent Huangzao 4, half-horse type, Yuanping, and large; however, the anti-crossbreeding (Mo17 Huangzao 4) is like a female parent. Mo17, horse teeth type, powder, large. In general, the maize hybrids in one seed production area are relatively uniform in shape and size, and the second generation seeds are uniform and uniform. However, compared with hybrids, the seeds are larger, flatter, and lighter in color, and should be purchased when they are purchased.
2.1.2 grain color identification method
The color of many maize varieties is usually red, yellow, white, purple, etc., and Yandan No. 14 with Huang Zao 4 as the female parent is promoted in the production, and the anti-crossing Dandan No. 2 (Huang BeisiæŽ– 107) is due to yellow. As early as the 4th grain of light yellow transparent, after accepting pollen of the male parent Mo17, yin 107, the endosperm part of the seed of the hybrid seed changed from the original light yellow transparent to red and yellow opaque, if check the Yandan No.14, the reverse cross grain No.2 seed In the presence of light yellow transparent grains, it is self-grained grain. Yudan 2 (Huang 107 Huang Zao 4) and Qi Dan 4 (8112 Huang Zao 4) with Huang Zao-si as the father were accepted by the father of Huang Zao as they were dark yellow top and red-yellow kernels. The hybrid seed after pollen was white top, and the whole grain was slightly lighter than æŽ–107. 8112 The top cover and the whole grain are dark yellow and look reddish, dark and dull; after receiving the male parent Huangzao pollen, the grain endosperm of the hybrid was light yellow, transparent, white top, shiny, grain Slightly white. The seeds of No. 2 seedlings were found to have dark yellow tops and red-yellow kernels. The seedlings of No. 4 seedlings of Dandan had a top cover and the whole grains were dark yellow. Self-grained grains were present and could be singled out. After the peasant household purchases the seed, it is practically feasible to pick the self-grain granules because of the limited amount. Seeing the seeds for luster during the purchase is mainly to judge the seeds. The bright color is the seed of new harvest, and the darker color seeds may be aged every other year.
2.1.3 corn quality identification method
Because of the hybrid heterosis of hybrid maize, the seeds and hybrids bred under the same soil and cultivation management conditions in a certain area have higher grain weight than the parental inbreds.
2.2 Indirect identification
2.2.l Germination potential method
Generally, the hybrids are large, full, neat, and strong in vigor, so the germination potential is stronger than that of female inbred lines.
2.2.2 plant identification
Planting identification is the most accurate and reliable method. It is suitable both for distinguishing inbreds from hybrids and for identifying purity. There are three ways: planting in the following year, planting greenhouses in the field in winter, and identifying in different places on Hainan Island in winter.
Planting identification is mainly based on seedling traits such as leaf sheath color, leaf color, width and length of leaves, plant traits such as: plant height, thickness, leaf size, and angle; spike traits such as: ear shape, ear length, growth of medlar leaves The differences in status, ear type, cob thickness, and cob color were used to identify purity or distinguish inbred lines from hybrids.
2.2.3 physiological identification method
The University of Botany, Gansu Agricultural University, conducted experiments on corn hybrids and their parents with heterosis in maize embryonic development studies. Observe that the hybrid embryonic tissue differentiation, organ differentiation is clear, well developed. Therefore, inbred lines and hybrids can be distinguished by physiological assays.
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