How to identify the age and live weight of cattle

The production performance of cattle such as body weight, growth rate, and carcass quality is directly related to age. Cows of different ages have different methods of fattening, so when choosing cattle, we must pay attention to the age of cattle. The most accurate method for judging the age of cattle is to detect birth records. If there are no birth records, the age should be identified and estimated, such as judging from the appearance, angle and teeth of the cow.

Age-appropriate appearance method Generally, young cattle are covered with shiny, fine, soft, elastic skin, full eyes, bright eyes and flexible movements. Older cattle, on the other hand, had dry skin, lack of luster, sunken eyes, sluggish eyes, wrinkles on the eyes, and slow movement. However, according to the appearance of cattle, only juveniles, middle cattle, or old cattle can be distinguished, and accurate judgment cannot be made.

The identification of the angle wheel is mainly applied to cows and cattle in pastoral areas. In the gestation period, especially in the second half of pregnancy, the fetus develops rapidly, often causing nutritional deficiencies that affect the growth of the horny tissue. A round of depression is formed on the surface of the horn, called the angle wheel. There are 1 rounds of angles for every 1 cow produced. We can determine the age of the cow based on the number of rounds. The calculation method is cow age = first calving age of the cow -l + number of rounds. Cows are usually born for the first time at the age of 2 and a half or 3 years old, but this method is not very accurate due to factors such as empty stomach, miscarriage, insufficient feed and disease. In the pastoral areas, there will be an annual round of angle rounds due to inadequate nutrient supply during the winter and spring withered season.

The method of tooth identification based on dental age is more accurate, based on the occurrence of bull teeth, replacement and change in the shape of the grinding surface. The cow has no upper teeth, and the lower jaw has a total of 4 pairs of 8 teeth. The middle one is called the pliers tooth or the first middle tooth. The pair of teeth near the jaws is called the inner middle tooth or the second incisor. The outside of the inner middle tooth is called outside. The middle tooth or the third incisor, the outermost pair is called the molar tooth or the fourth incisor tooth.

There are milk teeth and permanent teeth in the bull teeth. The milk teeth are the first to grow. After that, the teeth are replaced by permanent teeth due to wear and tear. The milk teeth are milky white, smaller and irregularly arranged. On the contrary, the permanent teeth are generally colored. Yellow, large and well-arranged, the two are easily distinguishable.

A calf usually has 1 pair of pliers at birth, sometimes 3 pairs. The last pair of breast incisors grows from 5 days to 6 days or more after birth. From 4 months to 5 months of age, the tooth surface of the breast teeth gradually wears out. The wear sequence is from the center to both sides, and wear to a certain extent. The teeth of the larvae begin to fall off and the permanent teeth are replaced. The replacement sequence is also initiated by the jaws, and finally the cavities. When the incisors are completely replaced, they gradually wear out and fall off. Therefore, according to the replacement and wear of the incisors, the age of the cow can be judged more accurately. The cow usually replaces the first pair of incisors when he is 2 years old, and then replaces 1 pair of incisors every year. When 4 pairs of incisors are replaced with permanent teeth, he is called “Qikou”, and the age before Qikou is the permanent incisor pair plus 1 and later according to the clamp. Judging the shape of the grinding surface of the teeth. At the age of 6 years, the surface of the pliers and inner teeth wear deepened. At the age of 7 years, the surface of the pliers is rectangular. At the age of 8 years, the pliers have a square grinding surface. At the age of 9 years, the pliers have an elliptical shape and a tooth star appears. A tooth star appears in the inner middle tooth. At the age of 11 to 12 years old, there were tooth stars in the outer middle teeth and molar teeth. To facilitate memory, there were 2 pairs of teeth, 2 pairs of teeth, 3 years old and 2 teeth, 5 years old Xin Qikou, and 6 years old Qikou. , 7 years old ~ 8 years old to see the tooth line, 9-year-old pair of stars, 10 years old 2 pairs of stars, 11-year-old 3 pairs of stars, 12-year-old 4 pairs of stars. In addition to age factors, factors such as precocity, feed quality, local climate, and deformed teeth may affect the wear and loss of incisors. For example, purebred beef cattle are about half a year older than this standard.

Live weight estimation The theoretical basis for live weight estimation is the relationship between weight and volume. Because the body structure of different breeds, age, sex and lyrics are quite different, it is difficult to use a unified formula to accurately estimate. Generally, the estimated body weight requirement and the actual weight differ by only 5%. If the difference exceeds 5%, the estimation formula cannot be used.

Beef cattle or breast milk dual-use cows Estimation formula Weight (kg) = Bust 2 (meters) Oblique length (meters) 100.

Cattle estimate body weight formula = Bust 2 (meters) Oblique length (m) Estimation coefficient.

The estimated coefficient for the 6-month-old yak is 80 for the formula and 83 for the 18-month-old cattle. The chest circumference is the vertical diameter of the chest at the posterior edge of the scapula and is measured with a soft ruler; the body squint length is the distance from the shoulder end to the hip end and is measured with a soft ruler.

Experienced people can determine the body weight, meat production, and fat content of cattle by observing and touching them, depending on the size of the cow and the degree of development of the body parts. The difference between the amount of meat produced and actual comparison is only a few kilograms, and the amount of fat is only about 1 kilogram.

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