Underground sturdy crops such as potatoes, peanuts, taro, sweet potatoes, yams, Jerusalem artichokes, carrots, etc., all have potash-like properties, and the demand for potassium is greater. In cultivation, potassium fertilizers should be given more attention to high yields.
According to analysis, for every 1000 kg of potato tubers produced, 5 kg of pure nitrogen, 2 kg of phosphorus pentoxide, and 10.6 kg of potassium chloride are needed, and the absorption ratio of NPK is 1:0.4:2.1. For a plot of 2,500 kilograms of fresh sweet potato, for each 1,000 kilograms of sweet potato tubers, 3.5 kilograms of pure nitrogen, 1.8 kilograms of phosphorus pentoxide, and 5.5 kilograms of potassium oxide are required to be absorbed from the soil. The ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium absorption is 1:0.5:1.6. . When the taro yield per mu is 2000 kg, an average of 1,000 kg of steamed bread will be produced, and the amount of pure nitrogen and phosphorus pentaoxide will increase slightly, but the amount of potassium oxide required will increase significantly. From this, it can be seen that potato and other underground cultivated crops have the highest demand for NPK in terms of potassium.
After adding potassium fertilizer to these crops, it can increase the turgor pressure of the crop cells, make the cells rich in elasticity, and can regulate the opening or closing of leaf cells, which will help the crops absorb more carbon dioxide to make carbohydrates and form starch and sugar. class. The second is to promote the development of the root system, absorb more water, ease the evaporation of water, and accordingly increase the drought resistance of the crop. Third, potassium is mainly found in stems and leaves, which can promote the development of stalk cellulose, improve the support ability of stalks, and enhance the ability of crops to resist lodging and pests, which is conducive to the storage of organic nutrients (starch) in crops. The transport of organs (underground rhizomes, fruits) accelerates the enlargement of tuberous roots and pods, thereby increasing yield, improving quality, and increasing planting efficiency.
Potassium fertilizer is applied to the underground solid crops. In fertilization methods, base fertilizer and top dressing are generally used. The allocation of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers uses 50% nitrogen fertilizer, all phosphate fertilizers and most of potassium fertilizers in base fertilizers. Fertilizer basal fertilizer can choose the concentration of general-purpose compound fertilizer can also be used with single fertilizer. For top-dressing, 50% of nitrogen and a small portion of potassium can be used with urea, ammonium nitrate and potassium sulfate.
At the time of application, the period with the greatest amount of potassium should be seized, and the first one is the seedling period. Each acre can apply 3-5 kilograms of potassium chloride or potassium sulfate or ash (including 7.5% of available potassium) 25-30 kilograms as the base fertilizer. When spreading, evenly spread the soil fertilizer to facilitate the timely absorption and utilization of crops. Potash fertilizer can also be used as seedlings, with 2-3 kilograms of potash fertilizer applied per acre or a hole. The depth requirement is about 10-15 centimeters. After fertilization, it is filled with water and covered with soil. The second is during tuber formation. The same amount of potash fertilizer as above can be used per acre. After the potato block enlarges or the fruit canopy goes down, the cracking fertilizer and the knotted manure fertilizer can be applied. It can effectively accelerate the organic nutrient of the stem and leaf and inject into the tuber to obtain high quality and high yield. Secondly, in the later stage of growth of underground solid crops, 1% potassium sulfate, or 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, or 5% turfgrass water (after 24 hours of soaking, the clear liquid or filtrate) can also be applied. Times (interval between 7 and 10 days) can reduce leaf temperature, favor drought resistance, eliminate pests (combined with pest control), and the effect is very significant.
Pay attention to the time of fertilization. Generally grasp the expansion of potato chips and then proceed. Early application of fertilizers, especially after catching large amounts of nitrogenous fertilizers, can cause problems in the above-ground part of the plant, and in the underground part of the plant. Potassium chloride and potassium sulfate are all physiological acidic fertilizers. Long-term application should prevent soil acidification and can be applied together with appropriate amounts of lime. Potassium chloride should not be used in salinized soils, and it should not be used for chlorine-repellent crops.
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