A searchlight is a device that produces a directional light source. It reflects the light produced by the light source in a certain direction.
Structural and functional searchlights consist of a light source and a reflector, which typically also include one or more optical lenses in the front section. The light is first integrated into the beam through a reflector (curved or spherical mirror), and then controlled by the difference in position and combination of the optical lens, and projected after the Zui.
Searchlights are mainly used in vehicles, film shooting, theaters, and lighting for buildings or exhibitions.
By means of a mirror or a lens, the outgoing beam is concentrated in a small solid angle, thereby obtaining a lamp of greater light intensity. The International Commission on Illumination stipulates that the searchlight is a semi-peak angle of the outgoing beam (in the plane passing through the large intensity of zui, the angle between the large light intensity of Zui and the 50% Zui) is less than 2Â°. . Around 1870, there were searchlights in the world that used carbon arc lamps as a light source. In the Second World War, searchlights were mainly used to search for targets for anti-aircraft guns at night. Modern searchlights are mainly used for ship navigation (such as marine searchlights) and signal signs. Searchlights generally use halogen lamps as the light source, as well as ultra-high pressure mercury lamps, metal halide lamps and ultra-high voltage xenon lamps.
A common type of searchlight â€“ a simple box with a light source (often a halogen rod) and a reflector (often a spherical mirror).
Mirrored searchlight â€“ The distance between the light source and the lens placed in front of the curved mirror is adjustable.
Lens-type searchlight â€“ The light source is placed in front of the spherical mirror, and the lens is placed in front of the light source (the inner flat convex), so it is also called the convex lens type searchlight (abbreviated as PC). Large versions of such searchlights can cause glass breakage due to the excessive thickness of the convex lens. Therefore, people use a lens with a reduced diameter to solve this problem. Such a searchlight is called Stufenlinsenscheinwerfer or is called Fresnellinsenscheinwerfer under the name of the inventor Augustin Jean Fresnel. A lenticular searchlight can adjust the angle of incidence of light by adjusting the distance between the light source and the lens.
Section type searchlight -?? Lichtquelle vor Parabolspiegel mit einer Kombination verschiedener Linsen, deren ver nderbarer Abstand zur Lichtquelle und zueinander den Austrittswinkel des Lichts ver ndert Es kann auch auf eine im Apparat liegende Abbildungsebene scharfgeslt "und dort mit Metallschiebern, Irisblenden oder Motiv.? -Blenden (gobos) der Lichtaustritt exakt beschnitten werden.
Automatic type searchlight -. Lichtquelle vor Parabolspiegel Das Glasgeh use ist linsenf rmig gestaltet und strukturiert Moderne Scheinwerfer besitzen zur gezielten Streuung und BÃ¼ndelung des Lichts speziell geformte Reflektoren, die mit Hilfe der Nichtabbildenden Optik entworfen werden und keiner mathematischen Regelfl che mehr entsprechen??.? . Sie entstehen durch die Variation der Fl? chennormalen der Reflektorfl? chen entsprechend den Anforderungen der Lichtverteilung. Dabei wird der Reflektor oft in verschiedene Bereiche segmentiert. Dann kann jedes Segment einen spezifischen Teil der Beleuchtungaufgabe erfÃ¼llen. Heutige Scheinwerfersysteme verfÃ¼gen Ã¼ber zwei Baugruppen, die die Abblendlicht- bzw. Fernlichtfunktion Ã¼bernehmen. Das Projektionsmodul fÃ¼r das Abblendlicht wird immer h? ufiger mit Hilfe eines Schwenkmoduls seitlich gesteuert, um die Kurvenlichtfunktion zu erm? glichen. Dabei wird der Schwenkrahmen anhand der Querbeschleunigung im Fahrzeug, des Lenkwinkels und der Fahrgeschwindi gkeit Ã¼ber einen Schrittmotor gesteuert.
Around 1870, there were searchlights with carbon arc lamps as the light source in the world. In 1877, France's A. Mang was invented a double-spherical glass mirror that was quickly used as a reflector for searchlights. This glass mirror was replaced by a parabolic mirror around 1885. In 1892, for the purpose of coastal defense, searchlights were placed along the English Channel. In 1910, fluoride or oxide of rare earth elements was added to the arc to greatly increase the brightness of the arc, and the peak intensity of the searchlight increased. In 1915, EA Sperry of the United States invented high-intensity arc lamps, which were immediately used in searchlights. In 1916, TA Edison invented a battery-powered portable searchlight. * During the World War I, searchlights began to load heavy cars and armored vehicles. In the Second World War, searchlights were mainly used to search for targets for anti-aircraft guns at night.
Modern searchlights are mainly used for ship navigation (such as marine searchlights) and signal signs. With the shortening of the illumination distance, the searchlights have also developed to medium and small. Medium and small searchlights generally use tungsten halogen lamps as the light source. The filaments have high brightness, small light volume and close to point light source, which can be instantaneously extinguished, but the light source has a short life. There are also ultra-high pressure mercury lamps, metal halide lamps and ultra-high voltage xenon lamps, which have higher arc brightness and smaller illuminants. The starting characteristics are related to the performance of the light source and the trigger.
According to the optical properties of the parabolic reflector, the light from the point source placed on the parabolic focus is parabolically reflected to form a parallel beam parallel to the optical axis of the parabola. In fact, all light sources have a certain volume. However, since the high-power searchlight reflector has a large aperture and a diameter of approximately 1 m or more, the relative amount of reflected light caused by the volume of the light source is small, and the luminous flux emitted by the searchlight is concentrated in a small solid angle. According to the basic concept of photometry, a certain amount of luminous flux is concentrated in a small solid angle, which inevitably produces a great luminous intensity. The axial intensity of a large searchlight reaches hundreds of millions of candelas and the projection distance can reach 200km. This is how the searchlight can illuminate long-range targets.
Searchlights as weapons During the World War II and World War II, huge powerful searchlights were used extensively on the battlefield. For example: as an aid to air defense weapons, used to mark the target of artillery, and as a search tool for marine ships. These powerful searchlights use a 1 to 2 meter diameter concave mirror with silver inside the mirror and two thick tungsten rods at the focus. The edge of the concave mirror is sealed with a round top cover made of heat-resistant quartz glass, which can be removed when the tungsten rod needs to be replaced and maintained. Searchlights work the same way as halogen lamps and require a lot of power to produce intense light. The illumination range of the searchlight can reach several kilometers or more. The searchlight operator will attempt to blind the pilots of the *illers (also known as pathfinders) in the bomber squadron with searchlights. The Pathfinder's mission is to use the flare to create a Christmas tree-shaped mark around the target to guide the bomber behind to bomb. If the Pathfinder's pilot is blinded by the searchlight, the latter bomber does not know how to bomb.
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