First, seed potato selection and treatment
Seed potato is the most important factor in obtaining high yield in addition to varieties in winter potato production. It is necessary to attach great importance to the problem of seed potato, so that the seed potato should achieve the best physiological state during sowing.
(a) The selection of seed potatoes
Pure varieties, healthy, no late blight and other diseases were selected and potatoes that had reached the best state (0.5 to 1 cm) through the dormancy period were selected as seed potatoes. Seed potatoes used in winter production should use virus-free potato first and second seed potatoes, and as far as possible eliminate the use of commodity potatoes as seed potatoes. Since it is difficult to produce seed potatoes locally in winter crops, the seed potatoes are generally produced from the spring or transferred into the north. The quality of the seed potatoes should be paid attention to when planting, and the source of the seed potatoes should be clear. The seed potato transporters are required to be in the flowering stage. At the time of inspection, determine the quality of seed potatoes. We must attach great importance to the seed tape problem, especially to bacterial wilt, because it is a devastating disease and a soil-borne disease that is most difficult to eradicate.
Seed germination status diagram:
(II) Treatment of Seed Potatoes
Seed potatoes should be healthy, disease-free, undamaged, smooth-skinned, well-stored, and have the characteristics of the variety of potato chips, if the best conditions to choose about 50 grams of whole potato seeding, to avoid the disease caused by cutting and rot of the tuber Absence of strains, the use of large seeds more than 100 grams in the current winter production is more common, this part of the seed must be diced before sowing.
1. Germination treatment Germination treatment is required when the seedlings are young and not physiologically young. The germinating seed potatoes are placed under high temperature, humidity, and dark conditions to promote their dormancy period, and then spread under scattered light, so that the buds become stronger and greener. Some varieties need to be germinated in a cool and humid place to accumulate buds. The clean sieved river sand should be treated with 25% metalaxyl or 58% metalaxyl manganese zinc 500-fold solution plus 0.5-1ppm gibberellin. On the river sand, spray and mix evenly, and then make a germination bed. The sand is 3 centimeters thick. Put a layer of seed potatoes on it and cover it with 2 centimeters of sand. This way it will be placed in 4 layers. Cover with 3cm thick sand, keep the bed moist and germination, 5-7 days after germination. If it has not yet passed the dormancy period before sowing, it can be sprayed evenly with gibberellin 0.5ppm, carbendazim 1000 times, and potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.2%.
2. Cutting large seed potatoes requires cutting. According to the internationally accepted cutting standards, each potato block weighs about 50 grams, each slice has 1 to 2 buds, and the cuts should be cut straight so that each cut has top buds as much as possible to keep the top buds. The growth advantage. Before cutting, prepare two cutting knives, 75% alcohol or 0.5% permanganate solution, immerse the cutting knife. When cutting, cut one seed potato with each knife and immerse them in disinfectant solution, and cut the next one with another knife. The cut tubers are naturally dried in the light or smashed with ash and fungicides. The slicing treatment was conducted 1 to 2 days before sowing. The slicing was followed by proper drying, so that the cut surface was healed and corked. The diced seed potatoes are less diced than the seed potatoes, and germination speed is faster.
Seed block processing diagram:
(a) Water Management
Potatoes are the crops that need more water. The lack of water in the soil will reduce the absorption rate of N, P, K and other nutrients, and reduce the accumulation of dry matter in the tubers. The majority of the winter potato growth period is in a season of drought, low humidity, low air humidity, especially in the driest season from February to April each year. It is the time when the potato grows most vigorously. It has the greatest demand for water and determines the yield. The key period. From February to March, it is best to water once a week. During the whole growth period of the potato, the soil moisture is maintained at 60% to 80% of the maximum water capacity in the field.
(B) Nutrient Management
1. The basic principles of fertilization are based on the combination of organic and inorganic fertilizers, basal fertilizers, supplemented by topdressing, balanced fertilization, and promotion before, during and after the control. In the early stage, the potato should be made as early as possible with rapid growth and many branches. Nitrogen and phosphorus should be used as the main fertilizer. 90% of the fertilizer should be applied within 60 days after emergence. The growth of the stems and leaves should be controlled in the medium term to prevent it from growing into an underground tuber. Formation and enlargement; late leaf color can not be prematurely yellow, in order to maintain the efficiency of photosynthesis in leaves, more nutrients for the expansion of underground tuber, potassium fertilization on the main, appropriate nitrogen fertilizer. Fertilizers should be applied completely within 30 days of the harvest.
2. The application of organic fertilizer for basal fertilization should be applied at the time of sowing, applying 30 to 40 tons of fully cooked organic fertilizer per hectare, applying 35% potato special fertilizer (13-6-16, plus trace elements) or compound fertilizer per hectare. Kg, 300 kg of superphosphate, 150 kg of urea, and 300 kg of potassium sulfate.
3. The topdressing application topdressing fertilizer is mainly nitrogen fertilizer, but the application time should not be too late, especially in the later period, in order to avoid stem and leaf lengthiness and affect tuber enlargement and quality. Fertilizer is applied in 2 to 3 applications with 200 kg of urea applied per hectare. Qimiao for the first time dressing, watering pouring, promote early-onset, increase photosynthesis area. The second topdressing during budding promotes the continuous growth of stems and leaves and increases the photosynthesis area, which is conducive to tuber enlargement. The topdressing should be carried out in the afternoon. The fertilizer should be kept from sticking to the leaves. If the fertilizer is spread, it should be watered immediately to speed up the dissolution of the fertilizer, taking into account the cleaning of the leaves. During the expansion of tubers, the mixture of potato expansin and 0.5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate was sprayed 2 or 3 times.
(III) Intertillage weeding and ridging
The potato tuber layer is mainly distributed in the soil layer of 10-15 cm, and requires a loose soil environment. Create a good environment for the healthy growth of the plants and tuber enlargement, usually weeding the weeds three times: the first time after the closure of the seedlings to seal the line, appropriate squat; the second and third times to shallow, prevent cutting off the new long Out of the stems. Combine cultivating and cultivating every time tiller. Timely early soil does not harm underground roots and stems. High-pure soil is good for water, fertilizer, frost, reducing green potato, improving tuber quality and increasing yield.
(IV) Pest Control
1. The principle of prevention and control In order to obtain high yields and quality, pests need to be strictly controlled. In particular, locusts and other viruses can spread the virus and control the emergence of locusts from the seedlings. Do not use pesticides and their mixed pesticides with high toxicity, high residue, high bio-enrichment, and high tertiary (teratogenic, carcinogenic, mutagenic) pesticides that are prohibited by the government.
2. Insect pest control Aphids can be controlled with 2.5% bifenthrin EC or 10% of a porphyrin wettable powder. Insect pests such as ground pests and floor tigers can be killed by insecticides. Liriomyza sativae and cabbage caterpillars can be controlled by agents such as spot latrine nets.
3. Disease prevention and treatment of potato planting disease in winter lighter, but the main winter potato disease, bacterial wilt, late blight, leaf virus disease, etc., timely spraying control, found that diseased plants in a timely manner. The use of metalaxyl Mn zinc, Rhizoctonia, and other pesticides in the treatment of late blight in areas where the incidence of severe diseases is late for the prevention and treatment of late blight, usually 2 to 3 times spraying can achieve control effect.
1. During the harvest period, the winter sowing of potatoes is generally 120 to 130 days. Most of the stems and leaves on the local area are yellowish, the base leaves have fallen off and the stems shrink, and they can be harvested. Prepare packaging and transportation tools in advance before harvesting.
2. Post-harvest treatments are packaged according to the size of the tubers. For the first-grade potato chips for export, each tuber weighs 150-200 g, except for complete loss. Each tuber needs to be packed in cartons after being packaged in small foam bags. To select sunny days to dig potatoes, timely sales after the collection, otherwise it should be placed in the dark room storage. Do not put the harvested tubers in a bright place. The tubers are easy to turn green on the light surface and seriously affect the quality.
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