Basic principles of clinical application of antibiotics and sulfa drugs

The use of antibiotics and sulfonamides in veterinary medicine has played a significant role in controlling livestock and poultry infectious diseases and infectious diseases for many years, and has solved many problems in animal husbandry production. However, due to its wide application, many new problems have also been brought about, such as toxic reactions, secondary infections, bacterial resistance, and harm to human health, especially in the case of abuse. Therefore, the following basic principles must be supported when applying these two types of drugs.

1. Strictly grasp the indications

The choice of antimicrobial agents should be combined with clinical diagnosis, types of pathogenic microorganisms and their susceptibility to drugs, and based on the severity of symptoms, choose antimicrobial agents that are sensitive to pathogenic microorganisms and have good clinical efficacy and less adverse reactions. Penicillin C should be the first choice for gram-positive insecticide-induced diseases, tetracycline, gentamicin, cephalosporin, sulfonamides, and sulfa drugs should be the first choice; kanamycin should be preferred for diseases caused by gram-negative bacteria. Damycin, streptomycin, polymyxin, secondary efficacy sulfonamides, sulfonamides, tetracyclines; penicillin.

2. Appropriate dosage, course of treatment should be sufficient

In general, the starting dose should be slightly larger, according to the condition can be appropriately reduced after the dose; acute infectious diseases and severe infectious disease dose should be increased; for liver and kidney dysfunction diseased animals according to the use of antibacterial drugs affect the degree of liver and kidney Reduce the dosage; the main excretion of antibacterial drugs, the treatment of urinary tract infection, the amount should not be large. General infectious diseases and infectious diseases should be administered continuously for 3-5 days, until the symptoms disappear, and then use 1-2 days, should not stop the drug prematurely and lead to disease recurrence. For chronic diseases or certain special diseases, the course of treatment should be extended according to the condition of the patient. In addition, in terms of the route of administration, severe infections are often administered by injection, and general infections and gastrointestinal infections are preferred.

In the course of medication, pay attention to observation, if the symptoms turn for the better, should continue to use drugs; if the toxicity is too large, you should change other antibacterial drugs; if the efficacy is not good, you should promptly modify the treatment; may consider improper choice of antibacterial drugs, insufficient dosage, Improper route of administration, untreated potential lesions, and errors in diagnosis.

4. Prevent bacteria from developing resistance and control the spread of resistant bacteria

Strictly control the indications of antibacterial drugs, the dose should be sufficient, the course of treatment should be appropriate, in order to ensure the effective blood drug concentration control drug resistant bacteria hope development; if necessary, can take a combination of drugs. Inaccurate diagnosis should not be easily applied antibacterial drugs, to avoid long-term preventive administration, thorough disinfection of contaminated sites, effective exchange of antimicrobial drugs in batches, effective in fighting disease and preventing the formation and spread of resistant strains.

5. Grasping the overall situation and emphasizing comprehensive treatment

Antibacterial drugs create certain conditions for the body's annihilation of bacteria. In the use of antibacterial drugs, it is necessary to improve feeding and management, increase body resistance, and correct water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance disorders when necessary.

6. Combination therapy must have clear clinical signs

Including the critically ill severe infection, a mixed infection that can not be controlled by antibiotics, the bacteria may have infection resistance, and the antibacterial medicine may not easily penetrate the infection.

7. Prevents affecting the immune response

Antibacterial drugs interfere with the active immune process of certain live bacterins. Therefore, it is advisable to use no antibacterial drugs within a few days before and after the use of the vaccine. After other drugs have disappeared, they will be immunized separately to ensure the production of antibodies.

8. Prevent incompatibility when mixing injections

Tetracyclines are best used alone, because they are contraindicated with various antibiotics. Potassium c penicillin potassium should not be used together with tetracycline, sulfa drugs, kanamycin, gentamycin, polymyxin E, nor mixed with Vc. Sulfa drugs, especially compound synergistic sulfonamides, can be incompatible with various drugs and should be injected separately. Hydrocortisone is contraindicated with various antibacterial drugs.

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