Straw return and mechanization

Straw is an important byproduct of crops, and it is also an important production resource for industrial and agricultural production. As a resource, crop stalks can be used as raw materials for fertilizers, feeds, living fuels, and paper, coal, building materials, and weaving. All countries in the world with developed agriculture attach great importance to the scientific and rational structure of fertilization, and most of the straw must be returned to the field. At present, the development and utilization of straw has become a new focus of China's agricultural production resources development and environmental protection.
Straw returned to the fields of stacking, returning land to the field, returning land directly, and other methods. With the advancement of science and technology and the improvement of the level of agricultural mechanization, the utilization of straw is changing from the original heap fertilizer to the straw directly to the field.
Mechanized straw returning technology not only grabs crops, but also grabs accumulated temperature. It solves the problem of timely disposal of large amounts of straw on-the-spot, avoids problems such as environmental pollution caused by rot burning, and increases the soil organic matter content by providing land for large areas. Improving soil structure, fertility, and increasing crop yields have taken a new path. A large number of scientific experiments have shown that turning crop straws back into the field or returning to the field is an effective measure to increase production, and generally can increase production by more than 10%. In addition, the mechanized straw returning technology has obvious effects in drought protection, reducing fertilizer use, saving production costs, and protecting the ecological environment.
In the past 10 years, the return of straw to the field has developed rapidly, and the area of ​​returning straw has increased at an annual rate of more than 10%. The direct return of straw to straw mainly includes straw smashing, field returning, and returning to field. At present, the area with the largest area of ​​conservation is Gaoliujingtian, which accounts for about 60% of the total area of ​​straw directly returned to the field. Mechanical crushing and overturning and landfilling account for 22% and 18% respectively. Straw return has become an important part of China's fertile soil engineering and harvest plan. Straw mulching has become an important technical measure for agricultural production increase in arid and semi-arid areas.
Second, the adaptability of straw to return to field due to China's per capita possession of less farmland, multiple cropping index, a short time interval, combined with a high carbon and nitrogen ratio of straw, not easy to rot: straw often return to the field due to excessive pressure, soil moisture is not appropriate, Shi Nitrogen fertilizer is not enough, and the quality of overturning pressure is not good, which has hindered cultivation, affected emergence, burned seedlings, increased diseases and insect pests, and even caused a reduction in production. In order to adapt to the characteristics of soil, agricultural time and crops in different regions, scientific methods should be used to promote the development of straw return. For example, paddy fields in the southwestern region and the middle reaches of the Yangtze River are suitable for overturning, and dry lands are suitable for coverage. In the Sanmao system in Zhejiang Province, early rice straw should be turned into late rice fields.
Third, the characteristics and methods of returning straw
(I) Appropriate return and cycle tests should be conducted to prove that the appropriate amount and cycle of straw returning (refer to relevant operational guidelines) can reduce the content of soil organic matter and increase it year by year.
(2) Time for overturning and covering should be suitable for agronomy. Due to the vast territory of our country, there are great differences between seasons in different regions, and crop varieties also have their own characteristics. For example, in North China, wheat straw is directly returned to the farm and is generally carried out in mid-June. After wheat is harvested, the wheat straw is chopped and spread evenly. Fertilizer is ploughed and sown to the ground for sowing. Tian should highlight an early word, which is usually conducted from late June to mid-July. In the rice-wheat rotation area in Jiangsu Province, paddy field is no-tillage or ploughing over the fields where the wheat is planted, and the base fertilizer is applied. After spraying, the herbicide can be used to cover the grass. Wheat straw is used to cover the fields and farmland can be harvested after wheat is harvested.
(c) Overturning depth and crushing degree Large and medium-sized tractors are equipped with various types of ploughs. The depth of overturning can reach 18 to 42 cm, most of which is at 22 to 27 cm. The chopper can chop the straw to 0 to 10 cm, which can fully satisfy the north The need for wheat and corn stalks return. In the south, the rice straw is pressed into the field with a stripper or rotary cultivator and a walking tractor.
(4) Reasonable replenishment of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers When decomposing crop straws, it is necessary to absorb certain nitrogen nutrients themselves, causing nitrogenous competition with crops to affect seedling growth, coupled with the general lack of nitrogen in the soils of our country, and the lack of phosphorus and potassium in straw, so straws When returning to field, it is necessary to add nitrogen and apply phosphorus and potassium fertilizer in appropriate amounts. Straw return can be combined with balanced fertilization everywhere.
(E) Regulating soil moisture The appropriate soil moisture content is an important factor influencing the decomposition of straw. Straw returning in North China regulates soil moisture to about 20% of the most favorable straw decomposition. In the southern paddy field, it is necessary to pay attention to the generation of harmful gases such as methane, hydrogen sulfide, etc. in the state of flooding. In the unmodified wetland, cold-sweeping field, muddy field, and low-soiled field, do not return straw to the field.
(6) Stalks that prevent serious pests and diseases from pests and weeds cannot be returned to the field. There are field plots where the rice stem borer occurs. The rice borer should be pressed deeply into the soil. According to the relevant operating regulations to take timely measures to inhibit weed growth.
4. Mechanization of direct return of straw The direct mechanization of mechanized straw mainly refers to the mechanization of returning the straw directly to the field, mechanization of the root smashing, direct mechanization of the field, and direct mechanization of the whole stalk of the straw.
(1) Mechanization technology of straw smashing and returning to the field This technique is mainly based on mechanical operations such as mechanical smashing, pounding, deep ploughing and pounding. The crop stalks are crushed and returned directly to the soil to increase soil organic matter, fertility, and crops. Production, reducing environmental pollution, and rushing for agriculture, is a comprehensive supporting technology, with good quality, low cost, and high production efficiency. Ergonomic efficiency is 40 to 120 times higher than that of artificially crushed coarse fertilizers, which is one of the effective ways to realize land conservation and establish high-yield and stable yield fields in large areas.
The straw comminution and returning machinery adopted mainly includes a hammer claw type, a slashing knife type, and a straight blade type movable knife and a fixed knife cutting structure, and can be used for soft and hard stalks such as wheat, corn, sorghum, rice and sugar cane leaves, vegetable stems, and the like. Crushed. Whether it is upright or placed in the field, the straw can be crushed evenly on the surface.
The straw crushing and returning machines that have been successively produced in Hebei, Shandong, Henan, Shanxi, and Beijing have the characteristics of stable operation, crushing effect, and high production efficiency.
The 4Q series, 4F series, and 4J series straw crushed and returned farm equipment produced in Hebei Province have the largest output, and the products have become series, which can be matched with the power of 18.3kW and 73.5kW tractors.
Small Dongfanghong 4JH-90 type straw shredding and returning machine developed in Henan and other places, 4JFM-60(1) type and 4JFM-100(2) type corn stalk shredding and smashing returning machine, etc., with 13.2kW~18 .4kW small four-wheel tractor supporting, has the characteristics of saving labor, high straw shredding, 4JM50-B type straw chopping machine adds rotary cultivator, while smashing the straw, can cut the root within 5cm below the surface Broken, loose soil.
The reversal rotary tiller machine developed by Shanghai, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, etc. can grind and burr 30 cm of wheat stubble into soil. Land preparation and straw returning are completed at one time, and it is suitable for wheat and rice field in wheat and rice continuous cropping areas.
The XFP series stalk returning machine produced in Heilongjiang can be matched with a variety of self-propelled grain combine harvesters at home and abroad. With the help of the original machine power, this implement smashes the crop and scatters it on the surface of the ground while completing the combined harvest. It has good shredding performance, even spreading, and adjustable throwing amplitude. It can be used for mechanized no-till straw to cover the field, and it can also be used to mechanize straw to pulverize and return to land. It has a wide range of application.
(2) Mechanization Technology for Direct Return to Field by Root Peeling This technique is a mechanized technique that mechanically pulverizes the roots after cutting off the straw and mixes them in the soil of the tilled layer. It is suitable for crops such as corn, sorghum, soybeans, etc. in the rotation-tilting system. In uncultivated years, the root smashing and loosening of the soil layer can be completed at one time, and the original ridge type can be maintained. For example, an integrated work tool is used. Can complete deep loose, ridging and other projects. Its role is to increase organic matter, fertility and fertility; increase the permeability of arable layer permeability; water storage protection against spring drought; prevent wind erosion, rain erosion; provincial labor increase production.
In response to the thick and thick roots of the corn, manual labor removal, time-consuming and labor-intensive operations, Jilin, Heilongjiang and other places have developed 2-6 rows of root rake crushing and returning machines compatible with 8.8 kW to 58.8 kW tractors. The depth of rotation of the implement can reach 10cm, and the root can be crushed and mixed directly and evenly in the plough layer of 10cm above the ground surface. The operation quality can meet the requirements for pre-planting soil removal and the working efficiency is generally increased by about 20 times.
The main machine has: 1GW?2 type, 1GX-2 type, 1MC type, etc.
(III) Mechanization of Straw and Straw Returning Mechanized straw direct returning to the whole land can be divided into two methods: direct burial and overall coverage. In the single-season dryland area where corn is wide and narrow, straw is used for overall burial. Techniques and mechanization cover the field return technology, and the corn stalks after picking are directly ploughed and buried in soil or covered in the ground without crushing. The technology has the characteristics of drought protection, reduction of operation, improvement of soil organic matter to fertility and other characteristics. The machine tools used are high plow column deep plowing pears and the whole stalk covering machine produced in Shanxi. The supporting power is large and medium-sized tractors.
In recent years, the development of mechanized paddy field straw returning technology in Zhejiang and other places has made progress in returning straw to fields in the southern paddy field. This technology is to throw wheat straw that has been harvested or threshed by machinery into the fields and bury it in fields after irrigation and softening of the soil and fertilization. Grass machines, buried grass drives or rotary plough machines operate vertically and horizontally in the paddy field twice, and the tillage requirements before planting the paddy fields can be achieved.
In addition to rice straw and wheat straw, paddy straw returned to the field can also be directly used for rotary tillage of the vine, green manure and field weeds. The main equipments used are 1GM 65 (125, 175) paddy field mowers, 1BSQ 230 (160, 120) type buried grass drive plutonium, Dongfeng 12 type or 12 types of agricultural and agricultural rotary tillage mowers.
The drive disc ploughs, machine cultivators, drive rakes, and paddy ploughs that are produced in Jiangxi, Hubei, and other places are also good implements for stalk returning operations in paddy fields.

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