The herring, also known as barley, snail, black clam, and green clam, is one of China's four major fishes, belonging to the subfamily Kookaburra. The body has a cylindrical shape, the side of the tail is flat, and the abdomen is round; the upper part of the body and the body side are black and black, and the abdomen is milky white, and each fin is grayish black. Is a benthic carnivorous fish, juveniles mainly ingest zooplankton, chironomid larvae and nauplii; at the stage of adult fish snails, clams, small fish, shrimp and aquatic insects. Under artificial breeding conditions, various compound feeds can be fed.
The herring are large in size, flesh-thick, fatty, and delicious. They have less intermuscular punctures and are rich in nutrients. They contain 19.5 grams of protein per 100 grams of meat, 5.2 grams of fat, and contain a lot of vitamins and zinc. It is the top grade of freshwater fish. Among all the four major fish, it has the best meat quality and high economic value. Greenfish pollution-free breeding has broad prospects for development.
First, the breeding environment requirements
The aquaculture environment includes the atmospheric environment, fish growth water area environment and fishery water quality, etc. The culture environment must comply with the national standard â€œEnvironmental Requirements for the Production Environment of Agricultural Products for Safety and Quality of Harmless Aquatic Productsâ€ (GB/T184074-2001), and â€œFisheries Water Quality Standardsâ€ (GB/ T11607-89), "Water Quality of Non-Hazardous Food Freshwater Aquaculture Water" (NY5051-2001).
1. Aquaculture water selection
The bluefish culture waters should be selected from water areas where the ecological environment is good, the water sources are adequate, and there is no or no direct pollution from industrial waste, agriculture, urban life, and medical waste. There are no sources of pollution that pose a threat to the aquaculture environment within the aquaculture waters, upwinds, and upstream of irrigation sources.
2. Clear excess pond sludge
Silt is composed of biological carcasses, residual food, feces, various organic debris, and various organic and earthy sediments. Through the decomposition and ion exchange of bacteria, they are continuously dissolved and released into water, providing nutrients for the proliferation of food organisms. However, too much sludge will produce large amounts of hydrogen sulfide, methane, organic acids, lower amines and mercaptans, etc. These substances accumulate in water and affect the health and growth of herring. Therefore, excess sludge should be removed. The specific measure is that every one or two years of breeding, it is appropriate to drain the pool water and excavate too much silt so that the sludge at the bottom of the pond is kept at about 20 cm. At the same time, let the bottom of the pool be exposed and frozen to kill pests, parasites, and pathogenic bacteria.
3. Pond water disinfection
To improve the pond environment, eliminate predators and prevent some bacterial diseases, we must disinfect ponds and bodies of water. Commonly used disinfectants and their dosages are as follows: (1) Use quicklime with a content of 200 mg to 250 mg per litre to bring water to clear ponds, or use lime water of 20 mg to 25 mg per liter to disinfect and disinfect the whole pool; l 20 mg bleaching powder with water clear pond, or bleaching powder with a content of 1.0 mg to 1.5 mg per liter Quanchiposa; 3 with a content of 0.3 mg to 0.6 mg sodium dichloroisocyanurate solution per liter Spill disinfection; or use a 0.2% to 0.5 mg solution of trichloroisocyanuric acid per liter.
4. Water Quality Management
Water environment is the basis for herring living and growing in the pond, and all kinds of fish farming measures are also applied to the fish body through the environment. Therefore, water quality management is the bridge for the pollution-free culture of herring. It is necessary to ensure that there is plenty of plankton in the pond water, organic matter and nutrient salts are abundant; the transparency of the pool water should be kept between 25 cm and 40 cm. The amount of dissolved oxygen in the water is more than 4 mg, the pH is 7~8.5, and the water quality meets the requirements of fertilizer, living, tender and cool.
Second, the cultivation of seed
The production and introduction of herring seedlings must comply with the provisions of the Fisheries Law of China, the Quality Standard for Herring Fish Seeds (GB9956 & mdash;88), and the Regulations for the Management of Aquatic Saplings promulgated by the Ministry of Agriculture. Parents used for breeding must be sourced. In the Yuyuan Farm, the quality was in line with the standards of "fish, grass carp, clam, bream broodstock" (GB/T5055— 1997). The production conditions and facilities should meet the requirements of the production technical operation regulations. The seed quality must be inspected and quarantined by qualified professional technicians.
1. Selection of seed
The advantages and disadvantages of bluefish seedlings can be distinguished according to the size, body color, seedling activity, and physical strength of the outlet ponds. The quality of the bluefish seedlings should be in accordance with the quality standards of the herring fingerlings. Bright, shiny, lively action, quickly dive into the water after being frightened, and have strong ability to catch food. During the sampling inspection, the seed leaps wildly in the white porcelain pot, the body is plump, and the rays are complete. There is no abnormality. On the contrary, it is a poor quality seed.
2. Breeding of seed
According to the different requirements of the bait in different developmental stages of herring seedlings, it can be divided into two stages for cultivation. 1 fry stage. The film will be sprayed for 3 days to 5 days, with a stocking density of 1 million to 1.5 million hectares per hectare, and a pond area of â€‹â€‹1334 to 2668 square meters. Feeding soymilk from the 1st to the 10th day after Xiatang, including 30kg per hectare in the first 5 days and 40kg per hectare in the next 5 days, increase after 10 days as appropriate, 2 times per day, Quanchiposa evenly. Add 15 cm to 20 cm of water every 5 days to 7 days, and increase the water depth from 1.3 to 1.5 meters. According to the water quality of the cultivation pond, top dressing is applied in an appropriate amount. The fry should be sparsely pooled after being cultivated for 25 days or so, and intensive training should be conducted two or three times before leaving the pond. 2 fish species stage. Dietary differentiation gradually began to eat small snails. The stocking time is before the summer solstice. The area is suitable for 2000 square meters to 4,000 square meters, the water depth is 1.5 meters to 2 meters, the herring is put 80,000 to 100,000 tails per hectare, and the herring is put to 18,000 tails to 20,000 tails per hectare. Carp put 0.5 million per hectare. Firstly use a small amount of fine material to induce herring to the food table, and then feed the bean cake twice a day. Each time, feed 2-3 kilograms of bean cake for every 10,000 beans. After 5 cm in size, mix the cake and 7 cm. Or bean cakes; specifications up to 10 cm after mixing crushing snails, began to feed 30 kg per 10,000, gradually increase after.
Feeding should be implemented four times. Targeting: Feeding at food or food courts; Time: 2 times a day, 8 a.m. to 9 a.m., 2 p.m. to 3 p.m.; Qualitative: High quality fresh bait according to different growth stages; Quantitative: Each shot Feeding is based on 1.5 hours of eating. The monthly feed rate is the proportion of the total feeding amount: 4% in June, 15% in July, 23% in August, 25% in September, and 15 in October %, 10% in November, 4% in December, and 4% in January-March. Food premises are often cleaned, disinfected and kept hygienic. Regular water injection, moderate fertilizer control, adequate dissolved oxygen. Take a patrol twice a day, morning and evening, observe carefully, arrange production according to the situation, and find that the disease is treated in time.
Third, adult fish breeding
The pond requires sufficient water and no water pollution. The water depth is maintained at 1.5 to 2.5 meters, and the area is 3,335 to 6667 square meters. The pond is solid and does not leak water. The sunlight is sufficient, the bottom of the pool is flat, and the sludge is less. Before fish stocking, remove excess silt in the pond. After freezing and exposing for several days, add 30 centimeters of water. Then use ash lime 150 kg per 667 square meters to splash water to Quanchipi. After every two or three days, filter water injection, every 667 square meters. The rice is soaked with 50kg of tea seed cake for a day and night. At the same time, it is required to have a power supply with a 3-kilowatt impeller-type aerator and a bait feeder for every 2000 square meters to 3,335 square meters.
2. Fish species stocking
Fish stocks need to be filtered after the toxicity of the disinfectant drug disappears to prevent wild fish from mixing into the pool. Fish species should be stocked before and after the end of February, so the water temperature is low, and the scales of the fish are tight. It is not easy to inflict the fish species such as nets and handling. For every 667 square meters, 200 to 250 tails of second-instar fish are reared at a weight of 1 kilogram, with 100 tail fish species of 0.3 kg tail weight, 50 species of carp species, and 20 species of black mullet species weighing 0.05 kilograms. Before fish entering the pond, mix copper sulfate (8 g/m2) and bleaching powder (1 g/m2) in a mixture for 20 minutes to 30 minutes, or disinfect with 3% to 5% saline for 15 minutes.
3. Feeding management
1 feed selection. The feed must meet the "Regulations for the Administration of Feed and Feed Additives", "Standard for Safety Limits for Feeds Compatible with Fish" (NY5072-2002) and industry standards for aquaculture. Strictly follow the "Aquaculture Quality and Safety Management Regulations" promulgated by the Ministry of Agriculture, and complete the "Aquaculture Production Records" form. The feed requires uniform color, no peculiar smell, no moldy, degenerative, agglomeration, granular, smooth surface and high degree of ripening. The feed should not be loose and the water stability requirement does not collapse in 20 minutes. At the same time, the nutritional value of the feed should be assessed. Different growth stages require different feed nutrient values. At the fingerling stage, the protein content is usually 35% to 45%. At the adult stage, the protein content is usually 28% to 41%.
2 feed feeding. Using wooden boards and bamboo plates, a bait station that extends three to four meters into the center of the pool was built. The herring group was raised and grabbed to eat in a domesticated manner, and gradually accumulated to the feeding bait. Daily feeding rate can be 1.5% of fish weight in March, 2.0% in April, 3.0% in May, 4.5% in June, 5.5% in July, 6.5% in August, and 5.0% in September In October, it accounted for 3.0%, and 2.0% in November. It was implemented flexibly according to water temperature, water quality, fish growth, and feeding activities. Feed three or four times a day. Each feeding allows the fish to eat 78% full. Even feeding, the feeding duration is controlled from 30 minutes to 45 minutes.
3 daily management. Xuntang: It is necessary to inspect the ponds daily, morning and evening, to check the water quality and observe the fish conditions. Oxygenation: From June to September, open the aerator for one or two hours at noon on sunny days, and turn it on at night in the rainy and cloudy days. When the floating head is heavy, it must be turned on to the dawn. Water quality management: Regularly add new water, and the water quality meets the requirements of fertilizer, live, tender and cool. In June, every 15 days to 20 days, Quanchipite will splash lime 1 time (15 kg to 20 kg per 667 m2).
Fourth, disease prevention and treatment
The use of fishery drugs should comply with the national industry standard "Guidelines for the Use of Non-Hazardous Foods and Fishery Drugs" (NY5071-2002), "Specifications for Use of Feed Additives" and "List of veterinary drugs and their compounds banned for use in food animals". Strictly follow the â€œAquaculture Quality and Safety Management Regulationsâ€ promulgated by the Ministry of Agriculture and fill out the â€œAquaculture Drug Recordâ€ form.
1. Prevention of fish diseases
In the end of April and early September and September-October season of fish disease, 90% of the crystal trichlorfon Quanchiposa was used, and the dosage was 0.5 mg per liter. This prevented the killing of parasites such as oystercatchers and Chinese sturgeons. Two days later, chlorine-containing preparations (bleach, dichloroisocyanuric acid, trichloroisocyanuric acid, chlorine dioxide, and dibromohydantoin) were sprayed once to prevent secondary bacterial infection. From mid-May to the end of August, two times per month, quicklime alternates with chlorine-containing preparations to prevent the occurrence of bacterial diseases such as enteritis and gill lumps. The lime content is 20 mg to 30 mg per liter.
2. Drug treatment
Turtle fish fry and summer flowering stage often parasitic trichomonad, ringworm and other parasite fish disease; Wu Zai stage of horse disease can occur; herring species are often infected with viral hemorrhagic disease; large-scale species of herring and second-year-old adult fish susceptible to Bacterial enteritis, gill disease, and erythroderma. Fish disease was found and diagnosed and treated immediately.
AP26113 azd3759 inc280
AP26113 azd3759 inc280
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