July-August is the peak season for temperature and water temperatures throughout the year. It is also a season of growing fish, shrimp, crabs, and oysters. At the same time, it is also a time when the disease has spread and spread, which is the focus and difficulty of aquaculture management. At this time, the quality of feeding and management will directly affect the annual production and economic benefits. In order to ensure the healthy growth of aquatic products, the degree of safety in the summer season, so as to achieve the purpose of stable production and high yield, according to the characteristics of climate and aquaculture production from July to August, to remind the farmers should do some of the following management and precautions.
I. Freshwater conventional fish culture
1. Seed cultivation and stocking
July-August is an important period for the cultivation and stocking of conventional fish seedlings. Summer flowering and fingerling cultivation should be done. Before the stocking, the seedlings should be sterilized in a timely manner. When stocking, they must be sterilized with salt water or potassium permanganate to prevent bacterial infection. To purchase seedlings from other places, it is necessary to carry out disease detection and quarantine so as not to bring in pathogens.
2. Adult fish breeding management
(1) July-August is the peak season for fish growth. Fertilization and feeding should be strengthened. Ponds with mainly fish and fish should be topdressed according to their color and transparency. Ponds or cages that eat mainly fish should be fed in a timely manner. And do feed "four set" (quality, quantitative, positioning, timing), fertilization, "four look" (see fish, see the sky, see the water, see the season); (2) pay attention to water quality control. According to the weather changes in time to increase oxygen and water. Due to the rapid growth of fish from July to August, the amount of food consumed increases, excretion increases, and water quality is easily degraded to cause hypoxia. Therefore, aerobic machine oxygenation should be started every day. In case of hot weather, it is necessary to extend the time for starting oxygen. At the same time, it is necessary to constantly add new water, raise the water level to over 1.5m, and replace some of the bottom water properly. Promote the use of beneficial microbial agents to improve water quality and sediment quality. During high temperature, it is best to apply once every 15d of photosynthetic bacteria or EM bacteria and other microbial agents; (3) to prevent disease. From July to August, the temperature is relatively high, but the water temperature is relatively suitable, and various pathogens in the water are prone to breeding and breeding. This is the season in which fish are susceptible to disease. If it is overlooked, prevention can easily induce fish disease. Major diseases that are prone to be outbreaks and epidemics are bacterial hemorrhagic disease, gill disease, enteritis disease, angiosclerosis, Chinese sturgeon disease, and ringworm disease. The focus should be on prevention of bacterial bleeding and parasitic diseases. Regular use of lime, chlorine dioxide, dibromohydantoin and disinfectant and other fishery medicines should be used to disinfect and disinfect; (4) Strengthen daily management and stick to duty on duty. From July to August, the weather is changeable, and thunderstorms and typhoon weather are prone to occur. Attention should be paid to observation of fish eating conditions and lack of oxygen floating heads. It should be noted that the signs of lack of oxygen should be filled with new water and aerators in time to avoid fish flooding. .
Second, crustacean farming
1. Macrobrachium Roche breeding
Seedlings have been stocked from May to July and have been for more than 2 months. The density of ponds, feeding amount, and oxygen consumption have all increased significantly in the ponds. The management of breeding has entered a critical stage. (1) In normal weather conditions, feed as much as possible to feed the shrimp. In particular, we must invest enough to feed the morning and evening feeds, and feeds must be high quality fresh and not bad; (2) turn on oxygen at the right time. Because the giant shrimp is in the growing season from July to August, the water temperature and temperature are relatively high. Special attention should be paid to the changes of dissolved oxygen in shrimp ponds to prevent oxygen deprivation. Therefore, oxygenation of aerators should be started in time according to the weather and water quality. The key to opening an aerator is: open at noon on sunny days, open in the wee hours of cloudy days and showers at midnight; (3) Regulation of water quality is an important part of feeding and management. Appropriate increase in the number of shrimp pond flushing can not only improve the water environment, but also stimulate the shellfish growth. Generally flush water once every 7-8 days, each time increasing the water depth of 10 ~ 15cm, and require a flow of water (4) rational application of biological agents. In high temperature weather, it is best to use a compound of microorganisms such as Em original dew every 15 to 20 days, which can effectively improve the water quality and promote the rapid growth of Macrobrachium, and can prevent the occurrence of various shrimp diseases.
2. White shrimp culture in South America
July-August is the peak period for the growth of Penaeus vannamei. At this time, the water temperature is high, the shrimp grows fast, the food intake is large, the excrement is large, the water quality is easily deteriorated, and the pan pool is easily caused, and at the same time, the disease is in high incidence. Therefore, in order to ensure the healthy and safe growth of Penaeus vannamei, it is necessary to strengthen the feeding management. (1) Strengthen water quality control. Adhere to daily morning and midday oxygen increase 2 ~ 3h. If you encounter low pressure and hot weather, you should extend the boot time. At the same time, according to the changes in water quality, it is necessary to change the new water, change the water in a small number of ways, replace the water of the pool water every 7-8 days, and then raise the water level appropriately and keep it at 1.8m or more. In addition, due to the large amount of feed in the pond, the amount of excretion in the pool, the increase in water pollution, and the increase in the color of the water, zeolite powder should be applied irregularly to control the water color. Difficult to change the water of the shrimp pond, EM bacteria or Bacillus and nitrifying bacteria can be used to improve water quality, splash 2 times a month, can effectively decompose the pool of organic matter, reduce the concentration of ammonia in water and nitrite. (2) Strictly control the amount of feeding. Feeding should be distributed feeding, small amount of meal feeding method. Feed 3 to 4 times a day, 70% to 80% in the morning and evening and 20% to 30% in the daytime. Daily feeding should be based on weather, water quality, health and activity of shrimp, etc.; (3) Disease prevention. From July to August, the main preventive measures are regular disinfection of water bodies, usually 15 to 20 days. Disinfectant drugs include quaternary ammonium iodide, bromochlorohydantoin, dibromohydantoin and EM bacteria, nitrifying bacteria and other environmental drugs. At the same time, vitamins C, immune polysaccharides, and viral additives should be added to the feed regularly to enhance the body's resistance to disease. At this time, the main diseases of white shrimp are red body disease (peach), white spot disease, black shank disease, red leg disease and nitrite poisoning. Among them, red body disease, white spot disease, and nitrite poisoning are relatively prominent. Therefore, according to different diseases, it should be correctly diagnosed and controlled in time to prevent the spread and epidemic; (4) timely fishing, arresting and rearing. At this time, the shrimp grows quickly and the amount of shrimp in the pond is too high. During the aquaculture process, the shrimp cages should be taken in time to keep large and small, and the commodity shrimps should be caught and listed for marketing to maintain a reasonable shrimp density and promote the growth of the shrimp.
3. Crab farming
From July to August, the hot weather and high water temperature are the key season for crab breeding. At this time, we should strengthen management, carefully rearing, ensure crabs are safe and improve the survival rate of culture. At this point should pay attention to the following points: (1) there is a sufficient supply of aquatic plants. The water surface should be stocked with water peanuts, duckweed and other shading plants, or pre-planting some emergent plants such as reeds and white water. In the crab pool, a large number of young plants such as black algae and Vallisneria should be kept in order to feed the crabs and avoid predators; and (2) to ensure the water quality is clean. Always check the water quality, change new water frequently, and remove remaining food and dirt in time. The pool water depth should be kept above 1m to prevent hot water from burning the crab body and affecting growth. (3) Pay attention to the feeding of the bait. During the high temperature stage, the proportion of plant food should be increased. Such as wheat, pumpkin, cakes and other crabs are the favorite vegetable feed. Feed these pellets into granules or lumps and place them on the food table to feed the crabs; (4) Prevent disease. The major diseases in this season include trembling disease, scrofula syndrome, and fixed ciliate disease. We must adhere to the principle of ecological prevention and disease prevention, supplemented by drugs and disease prevention. Disinfection usually takes lime, bromochlorohydantoin, etc., or regular use of beneficial microbial preparations such as EM, to maintain the microecological balance in crab ponds.
Third, turtle management
1.7-August is the breeding season for Chinese sturgeon, and a large number of juveniles will hatch. First, we must promptly do a good job of incubation and collection. Second, we must strengthen the intensive cultivation and disease prevention measures. Before entering the pool, the juvenile must be disinfected with potassium permanganate and salt to prevent infection. Actively promote the raising of households for self-breeding and self-cultivation. If foreign countries purchase quail eggs or larvae, they should strengthen inspection and quarantine, and conduct strict disinfection to prevent the introduction of pathogens.
2. For turtles raised in greenhouses, due to the high indoor air temperature, ventilation and ventilation should be taken into account, and the adjustment of water quality and reasonable feeding of feed should be strengthened. When moving from the greenhouse to the outer pond for breeding, it should be noted that the temperature difference should not be too large, and it is best to choose the cool and cool weather in the morning when moving, and to minimize the damage and mutual bite when operating, so as to avoid the disease after entering the pool.
The susceptible diseases of soft-shelled turtle in 3.7-to-September are mainly carrion, perforation, white floor disease, mumps and acne, and preventive measures should be taken actively. (1) The greenhouse raising pond should pay attention to the improvement of water quality, regular disinfection, timely changing of water, adding EM crude or immune polysaccharides to the feed to enhance the disease resistance of the carcass, and (2) quality control of good seeds. Farmed turtles are required to purchase a healthy, disease-free species. Prior to stocking into the pool must be strictly disinfected with drugs; (3) regular water quality regulation and water disinfection. Generally use chlorine dioxide, bromochlorohydantoin, EM original dew and other environmental drugs to alternately disinfect every 20 to 25 days; (4) regularly add vitamin C, allicin, and immune polysaccharides to the feed to enhance the turtle's own immunity. .
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