Walnut is an important oil fruit tree, which is both nutritious food and has great medical efficacy. It is currently an ideal economic forest for returning farmland to forests. In order to produce high yields early and increase the economic benefits per unit area, dwarf close planting techniques are often used. Generally, close planting gardens are planted at 3m2m or 4m3m (111-156 per acre), and grafted seedlings can enter a high-yield period from 4 to 5 years. Production up to 300 ~ 500kg. Although the adaptability of walnuts to the soil is relatively strong, but because it is a deep-rooted fruit tree, and the resistance is weak, it should be more suitable to choose a deep fertile soil with strong water retention. Walnuts are hi light fruit trees and require sufficient light. When setting up a garden on the mountain, it is better to choose the south slope.
1. Walnut requirements for environmental conditions
(1) Temperature Walnut belongs to the thermophilic tree species. The suitable temperature range and frost-free period are: the annual average temperature is 9Â°C to 16Â°C, the extreme minimum temperature is -25Â°C to 2Â°C, the extreme maximum temperature is 38Â°C or less, and the frost-free period is 150d or less.
(2) Bright walnut light. After entering the result period, more lighting conditions are needed. The annual sunshine hours should be above 2000 hours to ensure the normal growth and development of walnuts. If less than 1000h, the nucleocapsids and nucleoli are all poorly developed. In the cultivation, the lighting problem must be considered from the choice of the garden, planting density, cultivation methods, and pruning.
(3) Soil walnut prefers loose soil and well-drained water, which causes poor growth in soils with high groundwater levels and heavy clay. It grows best on calcium-containing slightly alkaline soils. Fertilizer like walnuts requires fertile soil and high organic matter content.
(4) Water The walnuts are resistant to dry air, but they are sensitive to the soil moisture status. The soil is too dry or too wet to be beneficial to the growth and solidity of the walnut. Therefore, the mountain and walnut gardens need to adopt soil and water conservation engineering measures, and in the flatland, they must solve the drainage problem.
2. Planting methods
In order to advance the results and increase the yield per unit area, dwarf close planting should be promoted, and grafted seedlings should be selected for early high yield. Grafting seedlings 2 to 3a after planting can be fruiting, 4 ~ 5a can enter the high yield period, and seedlings need 8 ~ 10a before fruiting, 15a can enter the high yield period. At present, close planting gardens are suitable for 32 (am planted 111). Walnuts are male and female plants of the same species, and female flowers and male flowers on the same plant generally do not bloom at the same time, so pollination between different plants is required. Therefore, only a large number of planted walnut gardens can produce high yields. Walnuts are most suitable for planting in the fall (September-November) or before budding. Before planting, large holes (length, width, depth, and each 80cm) can be layered and pressed into organic fertilizers, phosphate fertilizers, and soil. Then they are planted on the holes and poured. Defining the root water and covering the tree disk with weeds to facilitate survival. After the planting, it should be dried in time, and drought-resistant seedlings should be kept.
(1) Tillage in the walnut gardens for deep greening or pressing in organic manures is an effective measure for early saplings and high yields of large trees. The deep plowing period can be carried out in spring, summer, and autumn, and before the budding in spring, in summer and autumn. After the rain, combined with fertilization, weeds are buried in the soil. Deep plowing should be carried out year by year from the planting hole, and the depth should be 60-80 cm, but it is necessary to prevent the damage of rough roots with a diameter of 1 cm or more. Young saplings of walnuts grow slowly, and the land between rows can be interspersed with leguminous crops or green manure. Adult orchards use herbicides every year from April to September for weeding 2 or 3 times and cultivating once in autumn and winter.
(2) Spring and autumn fertilization combined with deep application of organic fertilizers to deepen ripening and fertilizing the soil in the garden, timely weeding and loosening of tree trays in summer to increase soil permeability, promote growth and development, increase yield and quality; pay attention to drainage during the rainy season, especially It is the hilly and hilly walnut gardens that concentrate rains from June to October. When there is a large amount of precipitation, excessive rainwater should be drained in time to prevent mountain floods from destroying orchards and soil erosion, and to do a good job of soil and water conservation projects. Where conditions permit, watering is conducted every year during the dry season from February to May to prevent drought or burns, and to promote shoot growth and flowering. Base fertilizer is applied every autumn, with organic fertilizer as the main, each tree plant 20~30kg, each fruit plant 50~100kg in the early fruit stage, and 150~200kg plant in each fruit tree; Shapes, strips, holes can be, but it is best to use cave-like fertilization method, that is, digging 4 to 6 caves with a diameter of 30cm and a depth of 40cm outside the canopy drip line, and applying fertilizer to cover the soil and then watering. This method It saves labor, labor, and fertilization. Top dressing is carried out 2 or 3 times a year. The first time before flowering, nitrogen fertilizer is the main factor to promote the growth of buds; the second time the fertilizer is applied at full flowering stage, that is, when 60% to 70% of the flowers in the whole tree are open, spray. Apply 0.50% urea, 0.20% borax, 0.30% zinc sulfate, and 0.20% potassium dihydrogen phosphate 1000 times to promote flowering, pollination, insemination, and increase fruit setting rate; the third time in June, rapid growth of young fruit The period is dominated by phosphate fertilizer and potash fertilizer. The purpose is to promote fruit development, reduce fruit drop, and increase yield and quality.
(3) To eliminate some of the male inflorescences in time. Walnuts are male and female plants of the same type. The female flowers are planted on the top of the resulting branches. The male flowers are born on the base of the same result mother branch or on the male flower branches. The female flowers are inseminated after transmitting the pollen by the wind. . However, long-term scientific studies have demonstrated that during the development of the male inflorescence and male flowers of walnut trees, nutrients stored in the tree body are required to be consumed, especially when the male flowers grow rapidly and the male flowers bloom in large numbers, and the consumption is more prominent. Therefore, in the process of walnut inflorescence development and flowering, the artificial removal or spraying of â€œchemical detoxification of walnutsâ€ and the removal of 1/3 to 1/2 male inflorescences can all reduce the ineffective consumption of nutrients and promote the consumption of nutrients. The water nutrients in the tree concentrate supply flowering and fruit setting, which can greatly increase the yield and quality.
(4) Irrigation walnuts are hi wet, resistant to waterlogging, weak in drought resistance, and irrigation is an effective measure to increase production. If the soil is dry and lack of water during growth, the fruit set-up rate will be low, the peel will be thick, and the development of the seed kernels will be insufficient. If fertilization is not performed after fertilization, the fertilizer effect cannot be fully exerted. Therefore, in the flowering, rapid fruit growth, fertilization and winter drought, etc., should be timely irrigation.
(1) During the hibernation period during pruning, there is a phenomenon of injuring the walnuts, so it is not appropriate to prune; the pruning period is most suitable for autumn, which is beneficial to the early healing of the wound in the year. The saplings are fruitless and can be started in late August. The adult trees are suitable before and after the leaves have not yellowed before and after the harvest.
(2) The young trees have strong trunks and the apical dominance of the shoots is particularly obvious. The development of the terminal buds is more abundant than the lateral buds, and the canopy layer is obvious. In combination with this feature, it is advisable to use sparse layered trunks. The shaping method is: dry height 50 ~ 80cm (if the seedling is not high enough in the year, can wait 1 year after seedling growth shaping), no trimming in the year of planting, only the trunk straight, and protect the end buds (if the end buds are damaged , you can choose a strong bud instead.) After germinating in the spring, the top buds will grow upright and will be used as the center stem. The 5 to 6 buds in the lower part of the top buds will germinate the lateral buds (the remaining buds can't germinate), 5 to 6 Three to four lateral branches with evenly growing growth on the monthly election were the main branch of the first layer, and all other new shoots were wiped off. In the second year, the main branch of the second layer is cultivated in the same way, the second layer retains two to three main branches (60 to 80 cm away from the first layer), and the third main branch is selected in the third year, retaining 1 to 2 The main branch is 50 to 70 cm away from the second layer. 1 ~ 4a main branch without pruning, can naturally branch lateral branches, expand the crown. Usually 3 to 4 years, the height of the tree is about 3 to 5 meters.
(3) The result tree pruning walnuts entered the fruiting period, the crown is still expanding, the resulting parts are increasing, and the contradiction between growth and results is prone to occur. It is the main task of this period to ensure that the walnuts achieve high and stable yield. Therefore, we should always pay attention to the cultivation of good branches in the pruning, planting good auxiliary branches and leggy branches, timely treatment of the back branches and drooping branches.
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